Groundwater occurs underground. Beneath the surface of the earth, groundwater occurs almost everywhere. Natural freshwater sources become groundwater either through water loss from wetlands and lakes or through precipitation that percolates to the water tables through the unsaturated zone.
Earth materials have a significant variation in the ability to store and transmit groundwater. The variation is because of the difference in the pores’ shape and size between consolidated rocks’ spaces.
Groundwater occurs in both unconsolidated materials like sand and consolidated, e.g., granite and limestone
How safe is Ground Water?
Groundwater is safe drinking water. The sources have to be sufficiently treated away from any pollutants. Groundwater is more convenient than surface water since it can not be depleted even with extreme conditions like drought.
Countries have different requirements one has to follow before constructing a bore. The regulations are in a design that ensures our groundwater resources are protected.
Water bore drilling requires vast funds. A precise and substantial financial outlay is critical to make the process a success.
Your location and purpose of the bore will determine what you may need before drilling one.
• A development approval that permits you to drill the bore.
• A water entitlement or license permitting you to take groundwater.
If the bore is bound to be more than 6 metres, you will need the services of a certified, licensed bore driller.
Before drilling the bore, consider the following:
• Drill the bore away from any contaminants. These include pit latrines, buried fuel tanks, and animal feedlots since they can pollute the groundwater.
• The place you settle for should be easily accessible for maintenance of the bore.
• How do you want to drill the bore? Bores can be dug depending on the availability of the water. However, drilling is the best option.
Depending on the requirements of water, the diameter should be big enough to contain casing. The pump housing has to have sufficient water space to facilitate the constant water flow that cools the motor, avoiding burnouts.
Water bore drilling through unstable formations like gravel, sand, etc., or saline areas, casing installation is necessary.
The extent of unconsolidated forms will determine the amount of casing to be used.
Heavy wall steel and PVC are the types of the recommended casing.
This process’s main activity is pumping some “special mud,” consolidating any loose materials when drilling. Mud drilling allows a good yield since it increases the permeability of the materials that bear water.
For the best water bore drilling, you will need the following servicing equipment:
1) A compressor unit with a Booster unit to enable drilling of large diameter holes
2) A Medium duty Drilling Rig
3) Special Bore Service Rig solely made for Pump Recovery and Bore Rehabilitation
4) Percussion Drilling Rig
During the drilling process, it is advisable to use naked flame welding materials. Any flammable materials are away at a 4 metre radius. Low power lines near the drilling site should also be turned off.
Before settling for water bore drilling, you should consider other options such as having piped water. The process of bore drilling is expensive, and the benefits have to outweigh the cost.